Random Number Generator

Use the Random Number Generator to create a list of random numbers, based on your specifications. The numbers you generate appear in the Random Number Table.

For help in using the Random Number Generator, read the Frequently-Asked Questions or review the Sample Problems.

  • Enter a value in each of the first three text boxes.
  • Indicate whether duplicate entries are allowed in the table.
  • Click the Calculate button to create a table of random numbers.

Note: The seed value is optional. Leave it blank to generate a new set of numbers. Use it to repeat a previously-generated set of numbers.

How many random numbers?
Minimum value
Maximum value
Allow duplicate entries
Seed (optional)

Random Number Table



1000 Random Numbers
69219 69635 53464 65495 82594 40470 33072 75328 32123 79800 76339 86764 99109 99958 77508 23319 94253 25098 95375 14858 09211 36499 17349 05406 93159 42883 48514 85960 54355 75726 25692 52302 86701 09571 56507 87812 21308 07338 83445 71281 03053 90640 72918 09722 92150 35094 29327 96183 90703 90632 34124 92559 94274 26816 09873 37406 68447 03150 09315 78754 50386 64390 29428 31915 75399 60860 50492 62302 28502 93762 00150 93235 20981 85490 42471 38759 91953 74942 92010 61453 34930 37832 52877 55244 49382 32002 82792 53220 17296 67738 82151 60440 04743 03078 08090 11749 88438 64126 13545 54589 07303 90366 11314 56815 39031 04973 63122 39500 01644 10126 93683 34756 80062 07321 29760 68540 77658 42681 64231 68472 92828 77273 45149 96642 20549 82415 89804 07427 78942 59995 23790 30300 60836 87776 45060 77645 10328 89715 12997 77570 24348 31273 62470 31715 79221 39726 42898 98071 82228 49479 82316 98788 48171 72379 76433 52986 00931 93027 02695 34575 00038 89091 59352 55058 92225 76617 29515 71352 87997 80341 70221 18594 63190 29007 26496 67958 85534 75670 70416 09463 66217 43019 65171 59792 36447 93681 54127 95097 49013 25539 74888 08817 04849 92040 98357 94489 04596 47513 92802 53560 25163 17476 12918 28197 21294 93952 13886 59107 52125 55780 90439 68340 32750 13927 40922 67109 10784 81805 56358 88599 67921 70574 34507 45780 46501 09467 18929 14218 01073 91090 63048 39893 74951 41745 19214 72005 01786 16734 52766 20788 32119 20679 81092 40327 84952 52829 37694 36365 24305 77374 61251 99118 60778 18760 09678 61087 78119 81996 99193 79870 84781 97973 68376 45978 90486 93772 67234 15641 07790 87979 71260 68627 78642 10994 20499 91050 25948 50349 83611 83185 30135 21015 46929 92278 30711 60719 28526 70363 52828 50252 17275 57070 58846 58786 36913 87439 24893 14183 35102 24732 42432 98310 97493 18248 44818 67349 86787 86133 58863 97112 06798 23193 81401 53353 91518 33705 80844 87078 19175 89235 23753 54861 51299 11443 26392 64155 96782 79900 31298 43603 00944 64902 08837 38353 59590 85276 83772 30369 58079 91202 86822 83743 35381 72014 31225 15012 73144 89024 14302 88462 09752 33326 44018 36448 79391 08613 90545 04705 76110 38988 62824 22657 42884 01776 10130 98733 85677 85337 48630 40678 12501 71880 12950 00868 97485 45274 32735 46617 69931 23859 34211 55494 28380 18262 66749 35637 79675 14206 54429 71060 03021 80326 72598 91969 39048 00978 49435 70075 03877 34055 92516 38903 28178 93794 40372 39110 21234 58598 39053 88793 60003 03836 43694 78802 03185 59668 45071 93054 30276 93848 21169 53846 05639 19541 13743 92165 67561 28135 29878 43003 42318 47055 68555 65668 83235 22569 72213 89096 34753 27609 03307 82165 21487 94580 45878 49008 62291 73168 32109 49323 09320 13162 93892 43688 12091 72256 39386 63870 06548 48872 54584 08144 29122 39962 29873 61598 55797 23829 11597 41450 66168 67935 78620 67359 32507 61715 43887 56739 33825 74388 80988 45070 94931 37773 75720 31210 50500 54098 02650 47709 34133 28812 26677 56122 92416 28401 29594 67318 23989 63199 61651 86797 43604 95199 18117 84999 71189 70866 40846 92620 45910 78953 44832 20919 65235 33308 69780 07038 48993 80690 56662 84307 28441 33581 49283 77561 60324 27998 20843 23453 65935 06304 25498 15762 95185 25026 74925 75711 15656 87660 39880 47275 26672 02488 76768 17496 98356 65391 79196 61797 35694 67659 54546 14288 67599 28805 25527 63088 60971 54376 56746 70628 59762 18770 06265 18970 49036 73042 02166 80118 44034 77719 44115 11329 04236 60617 29919 75426 72419 99646 07094 86111 38727 30628 49427 78279 29729 80107 58534 03326 22482 23163 90427 49468 83593 66221 07075 87047 33283 54871 52968 38847 34449 06671 56674 75408 06726 68966 57411 35333 65550 01699 56598 70606 86219 85223 94430 16903 92959 53114 51428 88901 72983 49981 75011 00598 15554 14283 31055 10617 76051 86139 80453 92523 65025 40139 80684 30136 62268 43160 12368 37842 55873 37175 30834 05907 06294 47070 42680 70785 35412 13449 07335 10439 40598 50456 63624 64643 33770 28580 81328 80304 05464 82470 37749 81769 13887 43749 19269 66138 98987 98823 47917 23579 21513 71699 32926 82638 27076 31792 47302 80552 35214 26739 29379 58563 53452 40214 09389 82228 16366 74737 61020 86735 49647 59490 77979 47212 59160 83125 75555 74040 45008 51582 17181 33169 40596 70896 66000 91425 76692 55015 61421 86827 70489 58608 20686 23899 39670 34879 65434 93979 41467 18380 73256 20535 36726 32823 54268 29476 78969 23893 52665 44467 28455 17060 73287 07236 91246 00391 33180 22892 83266 32365 38162 30236 19364 74681 84381 97072 27378 50076 84881 40519 87198 25133 21162 72327 94826 18094 19743 69187 51439 31677 53726 68042 77454 10882 69358 86406 51589 25808 37592 67666 74922 79465 30650 51404 59961 40583 23589 68707 44700 01431 20857 62474 31684 60621 07861 32737 52071 30930 27526 06968 54696 72103 81862 35393 20130 48675 58520 11303 99749 12774 82360 16370 79787 11941 92011 90956 70408 21940 41434 29428 19761 04567 26486 00469 53049 90470 36479 92391 36586 86953 30744 83446 66863 10796 40198 37142 84608 46062 93897 22552 13851 26912 70609 59629 25985 45418 75368 89517 28828 84375 41042 69862 80687 75111 54894 95130 29420 80304 10141 41913 76498 01790 82522 39246 66067 13380 31859 63916 99013 18669 28616 60780 72021 33848 05465 88070 41640 95522 33848 87711 13346 93514 25538 80633 55602 28687 59204 87080 38920 95748 31972 71928 99929 91066 35985 14991 30432 45481 59970 06340 91469 82120 15800 66610 52383 99207 90052 92316 54879 77876 20574 26164 02089 14983 98047 52365 72631 80920 92543 16946 59675 02428 05097 73061 35006 70405 44257 51308 38083 72723 27657 55038 90102 52041 08575 80667 33062 88614 27496 62992 93826 08106 88673 45501 73179 14406 61693 75685 59899 47436 08036 25351 69810 65968 32640 35937 09854 55432 60463 88821 67145 60733 38044 00635 23037 44057 60066 43577 92184 67693 20921 90724 86606 01837 91269 86347 04744 57407 19601 41216 45531 43859 58807 52922 47450 51993 17728 51182 52597 61773 37729 68156 95743 75133 94256 33757 18398 73793 23398 95964 07874 02071 73453 66137 61343 74694

Specs: This table of 1000 random numbers was produced according to the following specifications: Numbers were randomly selected from within the range of 0 to 99999. Duplicate numbers were allowed. This table was generated on 9/26/2021.

Frequently-Asked Questions


Instructions: To find the answer to a frequently-asked question, simply click on the question.

What are random numbers?

Random numbers are sets of digits (i.e., 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) arranged in random order. Because they are randomly ordered, no individual digit can be predicted from knowledge of any other digit or group of digits.

What is a random number generator?

A random number generator is a process that produces random numbers. Any random process (e.g., a flip of a coin or the toss of a die) can be used to generate random numbers. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator uses a statistical algorithm to produce random numbers.

What is a random number table?

A random number table is a listing of random numbers. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator produces a listing of random numbers, based on the following User specifications:

  • The quantity of random numbers desired.
  • The maximum and minimum values of random numbers in the list.
  • Whether or not duplicate random numbers are permitted.

How "random" is Stat Trek's Random Number Generator?

Although no computer algorithm can produce numbers that are truly random, Stat Trek's Random Number Generator produces numbers that are nearly random. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator can be used for most statistical applications (like randomly assigning subjects to treatments in a statistical experiment). However, it should not be used to generate numbers for cryptography.

What are the minimum and maximum values in the Random Number Generator?

The minimum and maximum values set limits on the range of values that might appear in a random number table. The minimum value identifies the smallest number in the range; and the maximum value identifies the largest number. For example, if we set the minimum value equal to 12 and the maximum value equal to 30, the Random Number Generator will produce a table consisting of random arrangements of numbers in the range of 12 to 30.

What does it mean to allow duplicate entries in a random number table?

Stat Trek's Random Number Generator allows Users to permit or prevent the same number from appearing more than once in the random number table. To permit duplicate entries, set the drop-down box labeled "Allow duplicate entries" equal to True. To prevent duplicate entries, change the setting to False.

Essentially, allowing duplicate entries amounts to sampling with replacement; preventing duplicate entries amounts to sampling without replacement.

What is a seed?

The seed is a number that controls whether the Random Number Generator produces a new set of random numbers or repeats a particular sequence of random numbers. If the text box labeled "Seed" is blank, the Random Number Generator will produce a different set of random numbers each time a random number table is created. On the other hand, if a number is entered in the "Seed" text box, the Random Number Generator will produce a set of random numbers based on the value of the Seed. Each time a random number table is created, the Random Number Generator will produce the same set of random numbers, until the Seed value is changed.

Note: The ability of the seed to repeat a random sequence of numbers assumes that other User specifications (i.e., quantity of random numbers, minimum value, maximum value, whether duplicate values are permitted) are constant across replications. The use of a seed is illustrated in Sample Problem 1.

Warning: The seed capability is provided for Users as a short-term convenience. However, it is not a long-term solution. From time to time, Stat Trek may change the underlying random number algorithm to more closely approximate true randomization. A newer algorithm will not reproduce random numbers generated by an older algorithm, even with the same seed. Therefore, the safest way to "save" a random number table is to print it out. The algorithm was last changed on 3/1/2018.

Sample Problems


  1. A university is testing the effectiveness of two different medications. They have 10 volunteers. To conduct the study, researchers randomly assign a number from 1 to 2 to each volunteer. Volunteers who are assigned number 1 get Treatment 1 and volunteers who are assigned number 2 get Treatment 2. To implement this strategy, they input the following settings in the Random Number Generator:

    • They want to assign a number randomly to each of 10 volunteers, so they need 10 entries in the random number table. Therefore, the researchers enter 10 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Since each volunteer will receive one of two treatments, they set the minimum value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 2.
    • Since some volunteers will receive the same treatment, the researchers allow duplicate random numbers in the random number table. Therefore, they set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
    • And finally, they set the Seed value equal to 1. (The number 1 is not special. They could have used any positive integer.)

    Then, they hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a Random Number Table consisting of 10 entries, where each entry is the number 1 or 2. The researchers assign the treatment indicated by the first entry to volunteer number 1, the treatment indicated by the second entry to volunteer number 2, and so on.

    Using this strategy, what treatment did the first volunteer receive? What treatment did the tenth volunteer receive?

    Solution:

    This problem can be solved by recreating the exact Random Number Table used by the researchers. By inputting all of the same entries (especially the same Seed value) that were used originally, we can recreate the Random Number Table used by the researchers. Therefore, we do the following:

    • Enter 10 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Set the minimum value equal to 1 and the maximum value equal to 2.
    • Set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
    • Set the Seed value equal to 1.

    Then, we hit the Calculate button. This produces the Random Number Table shown below.

    10 Random Numbers
    2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1

    From the table, we can see that the first entry is "2". Therefore, the first volunteer received Treatment 2. And the second entry is "2". Hence, the second volunteer also received Treatment 2. And so on. The tenth volunteer received the tenth number in the list, which is "1". So the tenth volunteer received Treatment 1.
  1. We would like to survey 500 families from a population of 20,000 families. Each family has been assigned a unique number from 1 to 20,000. How can we randomly select 500 families for the survey?

    Solution:

    We input the following settings in the Random Number Generator:

    • We want to select 500 families. Therefore, we enter 500 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Since each family has been assigned a number from 1 to 20,000, we set the minimum value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 20,000.
    • Since we only want to survey each family once, we don't want duplicate random numbers in our random number table. Therefore, we set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "False".

    Then, we hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a Random Number Table consisting of 500 unique random numbers between 1 and 20,000. We will survey the families represented by these numbers - a sample of 500 families randomly selected from the population of 20,000 families.