Random Number Generator

Use the Random Number Generator to create a list of random numbers, based on your specifications. The numbers you generate appear in the Random Number Table.

For help in using the Random Number Generator, read the Frequently-Asked Questions or review the Sample Problems.

  • Enter a value in each of the first three text boxes.
  • Indicate whether duplicate entries are allowed in the table.
  • Click the Calculate button to create a table of random numbers.

Note: The seed value is optional. Leave it blank to generate a new set of numbers. Use it to repeat a previously-generated set of numbers.

How many random numbers?
Minimum value
Maximum value
Allow duplicate entries
Seed (optional)

Random Number Table



1000 Random Numbers
68954 60969 20342 04718 57857 98387 20712 90742 63384 16008 90236 40004 67086 75435 25358 19431 99436 91494 62849 74950 53899 90046 06378 51808 25987 90798 78072 39878 77328 15120 95073 43977 24725 18851 71109 79173 54219 50119 43052 91103 60153 32148 22480 01282 09231 71070 72240 77415 29585 88744 08014 28714 24834 80560 24874 26205 13148 98259 48853 48043 91311 57740 13501 49825 23782 71875 61452 59902 56758 08322 70984 99692 57239 72336 07580 28990 77084 14582 00495 16283 42082 63948 44316 34065 66008 85357 25522 79142 89689 62580 74053 17950 45065 06049 39864 56869 44250 85665 94495 37531 93599 88619 57631 57133 32767 02197 48661 13753 98770 21594 63247 76660 15053 82731 74881 81627 05547 20061 61450 51243 33736 49387 56797 40226 66714 75671 27286 05735 64255 25847 73364 02684 92867 06636 56119 04051 64862 87355 48849 46197 02414 07732 13621 99171 26622 10718 02834 62027 71575 00297 85780 83135 23412 24304 00210 05495 84384 82232 28893 37047 61920 58046 01182 45986 82687 77998 19573 81073 31650 93437 11269 16947 16141 88622 04742 24441 54915 13534 31299 65888 92217 41691 51638 15442 36843 52957 07417 04382 26200 41356 97810 91430 15372 47886 81076 58063 91183 18329 01117 28821 11255 86066 39044 16628 68076 79887 89736 93094 78057 56804 63402 83837 95599 59867 12150 88789 52154 00969 81542 27512 20285 68668 87161 09510 02735 60993 16170 29539 46481 43256 53878 87923 81803 30869 35302 35864 86344 97153 21726 45756 74172 06154 02268 06497 09845 70450 20441 43801 47469 33967 25712 65511 94767 79795 50071 31911 02134 62991 09589 51039 76706 68402 30979 99002 21418 93469 03165 65281 99070 56046 53838 23052 21386 27207 51022 24494 63080 89065 29634 21103 00915 17576 43051 09002 77769 90359 39667 99258 91694 19506 64458 13189 09982 09392 85546 02683 08226 39492 45760 95503 34379 72189 39198 65607 97824 85590 12788 28453 83429 31337 92856 61320 90616 17420 36684 48612 97416 15987 09071 52176 49540 96162 83903 06614 74436 81853 70704 39592 20350 34563 66212 17156 20396 61208 30929 14045 81610 46927 90692 08999 99018 12892 63232 05077 94696 99124 09735 74965 81834 72304 11411 31291 53798 58586 71047 21938 98191 01408 39578 50353 35918 44306 67645 20865 85246 38728 82158 08992 50870 76842 87859 56757 37971 49353 93885 92999 91281 28313 65331 78686 59148 74934 99810 77227 82591 72400 29017 49786 09373 83682 45293 75592 33052 34348 53184 97255 57054 20374 46008 91073 83728 40962 07413 62352 28413 56348 37942 65711 58496 70613 06596 50400 57481 39502 27393 30609 14046 03232 60937 80784 36106 44302 40973 55934 89879 70312 25955 36950 63945 21771 75606 00913 58310 04911 52480 16409 98469 49499 48527 63838 74466 91648 36654 80732 04961 81634 47286 32063 26287 16705 69932 05556 06517 98891 79745 32003 84524 17824 89083 30576 34044 58545 24076 79137 52741 34314 26185 09552 76265 44432 78766 28006 17316 57044 58631 60308 29711 16955 12614 22213 97439 78444 59128 14727 48729 63075 14732 44424 95110 42510 45691 68757 95476 46319 44542 66369 45145 94797 31652 32408 89924 56773 81783 98838 65171 32425 75653 79752 59856 61089 76501 41684 05627 54075 31648 98923 90868 52479 99059 33824 99764 09993 98907 42119 76366 00719 90131 03235 13648 51983 72007 75600 67574 02146 10703 16960 96156 83416 90843 29688 23522 29661 92073 31101 28976 09223 90619 48768 61058 82727 85853 40825 76611 85898 51853 41287 04839 37370 13967 30360 36375 71498 50375 29755 37337 96176 18651 22997 88395 75643 07327 00744 48834 38297 12454 31090 45611 09512 39165 54888 87426 69446 28238 06054 03775 35852 07656 56886 09021 71897 69175 88369 91450 18968 69881 85496 27340 54489 58753 57575 20015 74730 28231 83542 63916 02622 90770 82275 33658 20568 80411 07907 98095 28258 79338 70136 59381 25478 69441 79540 17035 19925 08880 17887 56999 60017 33649 33449 65706 92708 84133 61317 69139 46302 56678 68708 96893 38259 80146 25281 71240 08016 17483 98451 21191 74791 92279 73696 21555 20403 40332 99875 57007 97079 86207 59538 11147 60269 44805 64239 80563 26460 47917 74850 13893 55985 95794 46868 75891 60836 33706 00734 36484 37480 53505 17144 84838 24668 20186 57357 68421 86250 23454 08515 57062 18984 54282 53948 32018 85351 06473 68492 00033 71369 03228 38797 32402 69403 48704 08645 29035 85976 04575 49258 07514 74586 91601 54611 17163 93516 16184 61747 78104 88645 21933 96086 45325 01265 66228 41742 97738 00887 21779 36830 52243 43061 03194 93785 02791 52181 18533 44666 84449 29304 45880 11478 62455 84958 34898 01478 46289 96957 33398 27489 28730 93213 38894 53213 49921 59547 75171 63545 86431 72502 93848 59881 65317 57159 00937 80437 03185 69945 08406 45555 70258 06446 10743 28020 79432 34222 86521 48369 00342 50619 24952 95208 98423 65579 77460 70521 98975 09454 34237 59981 76223 65821 25805 28269 67380 29290 49584 39380 11709 88319 21448 01937 14588 33026 52292 39507 36570 88003 49593 85910 07446 70125 43972 05530 65309 71367 40759 38634 20612 66613 96549 71676 45239 46469 20775 32619 86557 75078 02259 11237 06488 72928 60783 04438 45564 24670 23650 86566 11995 11925 27241 04725 95728 71101 43583 99080 07512 76204 31913 48177 42958 46648 15234 39256 71603 80072 81882 63555 50974 10148 12087 36635 65646 89398 29538 43681 91310 97002 77942 09822 83830 71614 22588 95439 93311 69172 76910 16482 03157 45713 54049 89777 94136 65184 43415 03343 33441 32253 12251 11704 88755 50126 32194 56198 67310 03353 30837 10293 79951 65647 68294 49898 30202 32694 38761 48678 28321 79962 97078 98361 30370 45520 10292 54057 02272 37846 34219 04565 08878 68639 15009 67689 28025 10635 15704 10551 89603 80418 67805 94898 39613 46232 47831 47421 29235 60791 78884 55066 28883 19098 57212 85344 67275 41250 03766 31643 95491 80258 40770 83546 76038 54853 93279 22137 96910 07302 15742 40318 10651 86219 43566 88121 98421 54379 69677 43016 59054 21529 46083 05229 23121 02202 10436 18053 91997 98528 37596 13159 01918 08047 16193 80910 13047 56522 50187 65671 23533 55751 85434 86126 08579 86380 61247 80587 84499 05715 86958 77306 97784 80535 43481 89791 39161 44902 09876 37115

Specs: This table of 1000 random numbers was produced according to the following specifications: Numbers were randomly selected from within the range of 0 to 99999. Duplicate numbers were allowed. This table was generated on 5/25/2022.

Frequently-Asked Questions


Instructions: To find the answer to a frequently-asked question, simply click on the question.

What are random numbers?

Random numbers are sets of digits (i.e., 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) arranged in random order. Because they are randomly ordered, no individual digit can be predicted from knowledge of any other digit or group of digits.

What is a random number generator?

A random number generator is a process that produces random numbers. Any random process (e.g., a flip of a coin or the toss of a die) can be used to generate random numbers. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator uses a statistical algorithm to produce random numbers.

What is a random number table?

A random number table is a listing of random numbers. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator produces a listing of random numbers, based on the following User specifications:

  • The quantity of random numbers desired.
  • The maximum and minimum values of random numbers in the list.
  • Whether or not duplicate random numbers are permitted.

How "random" is Stat Trek's Random Number Generator?

Although no computer algorithm can produce numbers that are truly random, Stat Trek's Random Number Generator produces numbers that are nearly random. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator can be used for most statistical applications (like randomly assigning subjects to treatments in a statistical experiment). However, it should not be used to generate numbers for cryptography.

What are the minimum and maximum values in the Random Number Generator?

The minimum and maximum values set limits on the range of values that might appear in a random number table. The minimum value identifies the smallest number in the range; and the maximum value identifies the largest number. For example, if we set the minimum value equal to 12 and the maximum value equal to 30, the Random Number Generator will produce a table consisting of random arrangements of numbers in the range of 12 to 30.

What does it mean to allow duplicate entries in a random number table?

Stat Trek's Random Number Generator allows Users to permit or prevent the same number from appearing more than once in the random number table. To permit duplicate entries, set the drop-down box labeled "Allow duplicate entries" equal to True. To prevent duplicate entries, change the setting to False.

Essentially, allowing duplicate entries amounts to sampling with replacement; preventing duplicate entries amounts to sampling without replacement.

What is a seed?

The seed is a number that controls whether the Random Number Generator produces a new set of random numbers or repeats a particular sequence of random numbers. If the text box labeled "Seed" is blank, the Random Number Generator will produce a different set of random numbers each time a random number table is created. On the other hand, if a number is entered in the "Seed" text box, the Random Number Generator will produce a set of random numbers based on the value of the Seed. Each time a random number table is created, the Random Number Generator will produce the same set of random numbers, until the Seed value is changed.

Note: The ability of the seed to repeat a random sequence of numbers assumes that other User specifications (i.e., quantity of random numbers, minimum value, maximum value, whether duplicate values are permitted) are constant across replications. The use of a seed is illustrated in Sample Problem 1.

Warning: The seed capability is provided for Users as a short-term convenience. However, it is not a long-term solution. From time to time, Stat Trek may change the underlying random number algorithm to more closely approximate true randomization. A newer algorithm will not reproduce random numbers generated by an older algorithm, even with the same seed. Therefore, the safest way to "save" a random number table is to print it out. The algorithm was last changed on 3/1/2018.

Sample Problems


  1. A university is testing the effectiveness of two different medications. They have 10 volunteers. To conduct the study, researchers randomly assign a number from 1 to 2 to each volunteer. Volunteers who are assigned number 1 get Treatment 1 and volunteers who are assigned number 2 get Treatment 2. To implement this strategy, they input the following settings in the Random Number Generator:

    • They want to assign a number randomly to each of 10 volunteers, so they need 10 entries in the random number table. Therefore, the researchers enter 10 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Since each volunteer will receive one of two treatments, they set the minimum value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 2.
    • Since some volunteers will receive the same treatment, the researchers allow duplicate random numbers in the random number table. Therefore, they set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
    • And finally, they set the Seed value equal to 1. (The number 1 is not special. They could have used any positive integer.)

    Then, they hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a Random Number Table consisting of 10 entries, where each entry is the number 1 or 2. The researchers assign the treatment indicated by the first entry to volunteer number 1, the treatment indicated by the second entry to volunteer number 2, and so on.

    Using this strategy, what treatment did the first volunteer receive? What treatment did the tenth volunteer receive?

    Solution:

    This problem can be solved by recreating the exact Random Number Table used by the researchers. By inputting all of the same entries (especially the same Seed value) that were used originally, we can recreate the Random Number Table used by the researchers. Therefore, we do the following:

    • Enter 10 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Set the minimum value equal to 1 and the maximum value equal to 2.
    • Set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
    • Set the Seed value equal to 1.

    Then, we hit the Calculate button. This produces the Random Number Table shown below.

    10 Random Numbers
    2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1

    From the table, we can see that the first entry is "2". Therefore, the first volunteer received Treatment 2. And the second entry is "2". Hence, the second volunteer also received Treatment 2. And so on. The tenth volunteer received the tenth number in the list, which is "1". So the tenth volunteer received Treatment 1.
  1. We would like to survey 500 families from a population of 20,000 families. Each family has been assigned a unique number from 1 to 20,000. How can we randomly select 500 families for the survey?

    Solution:

    We input the following settings in the Random Number Generator:

    • We want to select 500 families. Therefore, we enter 500 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Since each family has been assigned a number from 1 to 20,000, we set the minimum value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 20,000.
    • Since we only want to survey each family once, we don't want duplicate random numbers in our random number table. Therefore, we set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "False".

    Then, we hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a Random Number Table consisting of 500 unique random numbers between 1 and 20,000. We will survey the families represented by these numbers - a sample of 500 families randomly selected from the population of 20,000 families.