Random Number Generator

Use the Random Number Generator to create a list of random numbers, based on your specifications. The numbers you generate appear in the Random Number Table.

For help in using the Random Number Generator, read the Frequently-Asked Questions or review the Sample Problems.

  • Enter a value in each of the first three text boxes.
  • Indicate whether duplicate entries are allowed in the table.
  • Click the Calculate button to create a table of random numbers.

Note: The seed value is optional. Leave it blank to generate a new set of numbers. Use it to repeat a previously-generated set of numbers.

How many random numbers?
Minimum value
Maximum value
Allow duplicate entries
Seed (optional)

Random Number Table



1000 Random Numbers
61024 24493 98069 04141 49274 92579 20301 82977 01168 96688 53604 71180 97228 51499 85190 13360 84874 71008 04324 47974 29980 13839 66383 15143 93442 53558 81919 89455 32735 73983 30725 37789 28482 89502 00892 02117 36010 90379 52876 07324 61918 13071 08557 94016 65635 35536 65305 76335 85987 97553 35040 24771 92754 46027 08296 73974 63237 05304 43281 55565 83820 72486 79944 55952 76530 37739 79033 99141 50602 29611 86158 54546 79040 85337 20859 69806 00180 46160 90659 28593 44253 77639 30136 33429 84946 14958 64979 13493 15967 33247 01054 57441 52605 42888 38465 71210 58295 09829 10615 60838 96176 00898 48274 40269 05659 54112 68634 64175 03987 73997 89377 85758 12797 51889 67737 39571 09682 11257 64558 49327 04757 78011 33363 60709 42216 75814 34412 99188 26900 46396 73766 52832 75856 94865 67348 80119 94900 60022 30008 42748 80182 09669 89585 63455 44744 60929 25968 08824 70087 25550 35158 97098 82731 80222 18334 30994 55777 61890 95912 55511 35471 88066 46608 40750 92767 02138 71504 89719 99889 43690 83106 71150 31890 43804 19407 77309 93220 45384 82953 06812 69286 48460 04903 72433 03014 80503 34090 33920 96412 91740 51087 55803 37133 75463 07268 90215 50035 13342 88869 84695 73749 45741 06052 15006 62235 67026 06968 42946 11349 45880 16819 99161 10404 70614 01918 90957 18733 19481 58758 35112 67248 55990 28065 15691 85011 49213 33871 66853 50785 19102 47567 80672 69606 06802 76972 39941 74343 69960 80394 75990 52257 03040 05689 51495 96566 82636 54330 68294 83011 37781 70461 00197 71410 45264 54970 50797 32229 49940 04540 36290 98141 10042 75722 93275 40586 67496 73991 11581 71339 43230 67809 92066 69068 57490 27690 29440 30897 75151 90261 20070 48973 76026 47326 94797 12021 50187 59926 76749 31913 18270 97403 64148 95228 76788 01461 38130 39812 68449 75233 95549 56347 77463 97338 06799 14907 49856 60945 98619 16522 38784 37838 61909 69745 74843 67477 84540 92208 61385 71059 09170 37189 94827 90582 16055 45172 09965 52908 30860 20411 50286 58824 57472 32493 63282 97106 35815 42899 20761 83580 24659 56566 64160 25186 09436 98452 74856 09039 35049 15095 69482 16494 63686 01179 20237 62204 57635 51097 00197 58188 87091 35507 53632 02888 62974 02902 91314 95238 94738 06170 10832 73720 73185 54154 41904 80429 78277 88218 16691 50137 11950 83807 65104 24355 55922 77011 35124 90393 54512 16128 38110 45425 22448 38225 19111 85552 77680 70699 52182 19860 99193 57844 60692 09490 09821 12411 62642 31693 84057 92168 40972 68897 80867 01469 38875 22769 01503 17809 80114 53275 72313 43391 14329 42746 52556 81689 87350 84938 67215 39008 36512 99096 64805 51046 10968 69014 00192 34461 16998 07102 42400 63429 88324 43442 07426 71206 81421 39859 16053 76697 95832 28974 76661 36011 19478 78275 93040 19026 98972 79174 97204 10955 34929 61071 07199 38902 02284 30419 09923 23431 95597 34781 68931 55123 99372 51899 57251 96144 83366 03750 15198 06802 22902 95615 33182 97112 44183 80137 59525 03360 94602 46383 33272 89665 38058 33911 42001 74536 75264 71829 04640 82444 89064 42856 79276 20378 14741 72392 95968 79407 35335 42569 14562 61247 01949 31324 07501 29819 79068 76456 67636 87816 14867 64691 41044 78262 36524 45740 84835 11074 70535 71368 49967 14627 88024 59452 89059 12317 75057 83045 89202 24120 27954 84439 29772 93158 73600 14225 65242 37258 14760 95359 32998 25520 00390 12222 86145 79872 20952 24683 51326 01639 28721 07162 11530 23103 83103 12693 13906 84065 20945 61985 02577 33408 51847 57486 76451 55659 78477 22444 72032 22553 41882 64970 71236 69595 91798 67102 34201 97619 81967 98865 57099 99358 90447 57336 54953 10999 64924 30705 69441 88748 93028 87337 01719 10397 97640 89835 70225 01877 57207 34105 93495 88830 51059 13414 97975 73167 29714 07455 50835 34630 10193 96412 17780 57356 96338 00015 45861 81438 24114 41612 71290 79491 31933 37224 52253 58210 55957 09611 26718 84935 50415 27333 95255 39213 32918 68816 28840 89361 54763 11408 01674 94028 96257 45448 48993 28756 87018 13324 49879 37546 51297 73540 35077 09418 78284 89772 19803 79974 17423 44938 61557 57959 98726 80254 42938 76828 78081 59300 79456 71303 07572 57084 52342 78939 30782 74098 66363 66685 03114 75388 32633 82449 37098 54613 76428 31655 72706 23107 69994 78813 72664 23942 90365 74074 42763 70992 02169 04799 77176 12993 65448 72116 28764 22608 68464 92487 04395 10487 85515 24267 85250 64332 59748 19270 72143 12957 10967 99327 55825 15353 68453 57852 12304 74748 28767 86405 23154 77673 38573 26252 20826 58019 02440 44927 58966 86106 15665 37798 07719 82741 22075 54628 74051 58280 96847 51135 47055 76696 54320 65558 68265 44634 80803 20217 26969 25481 92390 48077 80522 78420 17774 44311 99657 22503 06059 42859 38800 25703 59570 17997 31380 18983 91666 10892 10142 35359 09557 81169 52461 73956 22111 83473 50651 89077 72669 69031 07283 04265 96857 12214 55492 51361 05399 62101 04294 34570 91929 19039 08894 19523 65804 36209 66004 47341 09915 46184 34148 73692 63503 12497 78984 32861 29966 06198 43608 26806 09677 07421 43871 39226 57794 31943 88690 74618 67071 82748 25361 22345 75675 26591 09872 45692 99992 95558 02214 95937 92446 13630 86695 51405 24308 48244 17251 81537 93509 86858 87762 35947 57452 38511 27359 58489 90826 60387 20741 26318 68417 09376 53484 13952 72922 18640 82358 82335 27760 99170 30636 92898 54885 66354 08406 46623 57599 91535 57887 48108 28366 78577 23737 94623 81618 65426 48371 90179 11577 50672 92269 84586 75060 45111 79287 37518 99294 48311 66978 07576 14731 50170 41895 66348 12855 57481 39907 37471 29001 45495 91515 60700 50161 34481 92159 80960 47801 91291 97533 62420 35673 55922 43899 27545 52626 93077 93397 21167 70418 68729 04357 99541 26532 51682 26615 44412 81983 40136 21823 02074 04138 13249 08761 47437 74519 07694 33651 73084 21626 19232 65469 03338 78739 29264 16257 33323 66740 56400 86437 93024 01918 33019 35120 36355 28786 06832 75423 55215 77893 67445 94779 18557 48635 97921 00251 36445 17066 51342 88840 49119 68717 52373 42805 41058 56400 23821 49968 80042 83026 38204 49032 81214 09418

Specs: This table of 1000 random numbers was produced according to the following specifications: Numbers were randomly selected from within the range of 0 to 99999. Duplicate numbers were allowed. This table was generated on 10/17/2021.

Frequently-Asked Questions


Instructions: To find the answer to a frequently-asked question, simply click on the question.

What are random numbers?

Random numbers are sets of digits (i.e., 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) arranged in random order. Because they are randomly ordered, no individual digit can be predicted from knowledge of any other digit or group of digits.

What is a random number generator?

A random number generator is a process that produces random numbers. Any random process (e.g., a flip of a coin or the toss of a die) can be used to generate random numbers. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator uses a statistical algorithm to produce random numbers.

What is a random number table?

A random number table is a listing of random numbers. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator produces a listing of random numbers, based on the following User specifications:

  • The quantity of random numbers desired.
  • The maximum and minimum values of random numbers in the list.
  • Whether or not duplicate random numbers are permitted.

How "random" is Stat Trek's Random Number Generator?

Although no computer algorithm can produce numbers that are truly random, Stat Trek's Random Number Generator produces numbers that are nearly random. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator can be used for most statistical applications (like randomly assigning subjects to treatments in a statistical experiment). However, it should not be used to generate numbers for cryptography.

What are the minimum and maximum values in the Random Number Generator?

The minimum and maximum values set limits on the range of values that might appear in a random number table. The minimum value identifies the smallest number in the range; and the maximum value identifies the largest number. For example, if we set the minimum value equal to 12 and the maximum value equal to 30, the Random Number Generator will produce a table consisting of random arrangements of numbers in the range of 12 to 30.

What does it mean to allow duplicate entries in a random number table?

Stat Trek's Random Number Generator allows Users to permit or prevent the same number from appearing more than once in the random number table. To permit duplicate entries, set the drop-down box labeled "Allow duplicate entries" equal to True. To prevent duplicate entries, change the setting to False.

Essentially, allowing duplicate entries amounts to sampling with replacement; preventing duplicate entries amounts to sampling without replacement.

What is a seed?

The seed is a number that controls whether the Random Number Generator produces a new set of random numbers or repeats a particular sequence of random numbers. If the text box labeled "Seed" is blank, the Random Number Generator will produce a different set of random numbers each time a random number table is created. On the other hand, if a number is entered in the "Seed" text box, the Random Number Generator will produce a set of random numbers based on the value of the Seed. Each time a random number table is created, the Random Number Generator will produce the same set of random numbers, until the Seed value is changed.

Note: The ability of the seed to repeat a random sequence of numbers assumes that other User specifications (i.e., quantity of random numbers, minimum value, maximum value, whether duplicate values are permitted) are constant across replications. The use of a seed is illustrated in Sample Problem 1.

Warning: The seed capability is provided for Users as a short-term convenience. However, it is not a long-term solution. From time to time, Stat Trek may change the underlying random number algorithm to more closely approximate true randomization. A newer algorithm will not reproduce random numbers generated by an older algorithm, even with the same seed. Therefore, the safest way to "save" a random number table is to print it out. The algorithm was last changed on 3/1/2018.

Sample Problems


  1. A university is testing the effectiveness of two different medications. They have 10 volunteers. To conduct the study, researchers randomly assign a number from 1 to 2 to each volunteer. Volunteers who are assigned number 1 get Treatment 1 and volunteers who are assigned number 2 get Treatment 2. To implement this strategy, they input the following settings in the Random Number Generator:

    • They want to assign a number randomly to each of 10 volunteers, so they need 10 entries in the random number table. Therefore, the researchers enter 10 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Since each volunteer will receive one of two treatments, they set the minimum value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 2.
    • Since some volunteers will receive the same treatment, the researchers allow duplicate random numbers in the random number table. Therefore, they set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
    • And finally, they set the Seed value equal to 1. (The number 1 is not special. They could have used any positive integer.)

    Then, they hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a Random Number Table consisting of 10 entries, where each entry is the number 1 or 2. The researchers assign the treatment indicated by the first entry to volunteer number 1, the treatment indicated by the second entry to volunteer number 2, and so on.

    Using this strategy, what treatment did the first volunteer receive? What treatment did the tenth volunteer receive?

    Solution:

    This problem can be solved by recreating the exact Random Number Table used by the researchers. By inputting all of the same entries (especially the same Seed value) that were used originally, we can recreate the Random Number Table used by the researchers. Therefore, we do the following:

    • Enter 10 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Set the minimum value equal to 1 and the maximum value equal to 2.
    • Set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
    • Set the Seed value equal to 1.

    Then, we hit the Calculate button. This produces the Random Number Table shown below.

    10 Random Numbers
    2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1

    From the table, we can see that the first entry is "2". Therefore, the first volunteer received Treatment 2. And the second entry is "2". Hence, the second volunteer also received Treatment 2. And so on. The tenth volunteer received the tenth number in the list, which is "1". So the tenth volunteer received Treatment 1.
  1. We would like to survey 500 families from a population of 20,000 families. Each family has been assigned a unique number from 1 to 20,000. How can we randomly select 500 families for the survey?

    Solution:

    We input the following settings in the Random Number Generator:

    • We want to select 500 families. Therefore, we enter 500 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Since each family has been assigned a number from 1 to 20,000, we set the minimum value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 20,000.
    • Since we only want to survey each family once, we don't want duplicate random numbers in our random number table. Therefore, we set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "False".

    Then, we hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a Random Number Table consisting of 500 unique random numbers between 1 and 20,000. We will survey the families represented by these numbers - a sample of 500 families randomly selected from the population of 20,000 families.