Random Number Generator

Use the Random Number Generator to create a list of random numbers, based on your specifications. The numbers you generate appear in the Random Number Table.

For help in using the Random Number Generator, read the Frequently-Asked Questions or review the Sample Problems.

  • Enter a value in each of the first three text boxes.
  • Indicate whether duplicate entries are allowed in the table.
  • Click the Calculate button to create a table of random numbers.

Note: The seed value is optional. Leave it blank to generate a new set of numbers. Use it to repeat a previously-generated set of numbers.

How many random numbers?
Minimum value
Maximum value
Allow duplicate entries
Seed (optional)

Random Number Table



1000 Random Numbers
40494 46654 74872 68873 94652 62720 16054 02187 49129 61031 60891 73365 43532 79020 28335 31801 10922 73749 78449 03553 54382 92222 01475 24149 48576 66694 31891 96402 66314 34990 87476 73224 30111 85812 33375 65436 88752 29054 71154 74583 18855 91113 52872 50744 51431 35204 20135 75346 23451 06670 68165 68976 54402 03294 34858 24194 47855 70616 14850 63345 18025 22241 98576 21371 41334 85151 36335 53626 32973 70021 27352 68684 48467 66532 33841 86156 10234 63678 20065 19502 59149 95083 16401 83838 31106 09313 08403 28756 58583 65188 50861 96132 97201 52094 06868 02941 77288 35295 11878 49066 80442 26248 62774 50113 41093 77913 31925 95226 73066 05067 06250 29892 21141 29615 51283 63763 37621 50904 00233 03459 83887 41035 68048 10390 56968 65175 90477 83559 41099 26870 88130 67382 84283 38358 55545 84497 99856 15881 75248 93577 93050 99996 56814 72143 12552 00889 00935 24376 27069 68690 88475 13929 26891 88780 94538 21741 50452 02108 27528 28849 35891 50501 93214 24199 97621 46977 83789 37460 27882 71061 91935 96836 23313 89090 49884 11880 36507 99532 93483 81303 52578 03298 51253 25791 90721 99050 58454 45813 30776 03519 96147 04438 64790 96812 55257 35142 73581 92730 25632 74626 28296 34077 10111 20627 16979 12974 63584 14726 96131 16168 57051 50168 67271 95352 66692 04669 78500 62470 87922 98230 51065 10032 74459 75949 30920 56429 02382 15836 65288 16242 59198 61622 04223 95556 57902 80575 27174 12273 76038 46308 94549 41423 19765 46597 24273 85478 12917 16189 93355 69664 11067 94616 64446 62273 40587 09008 37407 19977 62715 81906 25867 58138 62613 64072 58787 46122 63432 92305 07022 27612 65372 72251 34886 65920 09749 86215 76710 14300 68053 25975 38409 11257 56013 50597 24042 00867 72658 69240 87375 78080 64382 48977 08443 59042 14002 47601 95113 76399 54826 71443 09648 99616 09711 58179 20266 80286 55129 84645 77707 22443 10226 99653 16789 77875 50886 81797 82980 66438 48797 22270 83950 21364 35506 32674 66141 59580 91490 77834 16328 77013 60210 33613 88178 68910 87181 69717 53816 75144 84029 57515 80388 50532 17559 02848 31620 60142 23811 03843 94383 99611 47128 33722 30256 40454 04214 48622 52087 00377 73201 20397 25555 38590 07707 94440 95736 76119 75905 72490 38660 41121 24575 20447 37879 39193 68179 01184 86025 48684 02913 32358 11377 41012 45776 69223 29418 25974 98629 12445 19404 22057 37260 40913 25920 51753 25444 69549 85447 61869 54008 32124 77922 68841 04892 89069 03304 29049 40210 60287 83131 34125 16317 82967 87086 31266 22867 94396 84562 68550 46878 39770 21219 65247 61794 05009 20548 07128 41546 74566 10436 66783 99617 14243 74729 48930 53104 79003 29789 60728 11777 45781 26061 07090 92147 71297 74637 10997 56525 74868 98813 58807 77084 46221 10655 70570 24925 78308 12563 95340 84136 25114 23829 31487 90856 84473 32204 72011 97336 05877 70458 74852 61005 23292 17942 58205 58529 12971 27153 20831 24875 76262 75294 87369 17374 47423 40839 78652 04781 26437 05091 07014 81341 36820 78750 96607 05849 08438 53474 28711 65714 85313 78437 12048 66019 58445 61899 78094 43588 23615 97761 01392 06043 64204 17133 44862 95871 59001 64894 30118 79485 15020 01256 32775 61285 25308 28325 02766 22722 51763 41662 09653 86362 32939 06851 12940 04945 16864 61055 57383 75448 18854 39584 93306 78153 04318 27452 21911 40702 96580 35947 65592 27163 09682 04185 63247 52093 06204 25678 90590 19601 80073 99894 05464 87406 64377 08824 18153 55906 64175 18537 86696 82236 14312 05747 37197 19331 62231 09379 09141 79990 75784 07122 25701 25939 76048 17001 89057 81891 95132 23934 00705 74609 58994 31296 06768 96970 95254 37482 68313 97029 66003 37468 56659 92075 25615 49377 73691 07701 03566 66036 97176 41862 12240 31544 51068 53939 79743 42830 00829 78803 07716 76218 73734 65872 54151 38991 04190 43180 41195 45949 04044 06437 87972 20975 57896 33091 68388 23598 43413 21388 93950 00550 76641 54441 21572 62338 82319 89288 86392 84796 89187 70954 59584 35656 50304 71515 31167 26105 88356 54161 17824 87351 65971 62257 95707 72182 81032 33408 58256 81534 86987 38518 99006 16046 38163 45854 19404 52629 60079 10110 61620 46025 44758 86469 66358 55372 71039 69663 55669 95763 49889 58037 40766 14812 94720 42613 54834 94215 16693 21152 10843 76311 45038 37215 84360 15648 72365 44225 21363 55542 24972 94531 71053 29642 58165 53474 43664 88491 76563 38440 93282 51090 79416 82933 25647 81458 30914 25630 30978 90197 55503 24449 41775 61054 58192 95604 15637 02481 69872 77678 43073 24202 17625 20676 80314 38771 20034 00093 07128 88139 07503 55973 09629 95211 67561 56975 88092 40414 15181 89434 89764 63255 88087 71421 66677 88888 67074 91811 58462 79671 21311 74340 00158 11734 78661 66669 55030 76539 20990 54451 72374 07440 04483 00385 70337 31251 04949 08287 43725 44804 88143 12148 96816 16513 05071 90196 01173 12937 12308 03960 78459 50342 17305 62334 08245 71264 48706 10636 60825 46069 51658 44673 55027 99519 08127 49802 41031 62335 82205 64995 08171 47754 90427 71899 17759 53096 97080 08897 60890 86328 34519 10177 41255 17620 48479 69787 82957 55915 68384 30702 63323 50486 02663 98885 70713 17502 59062 82350 87334 91588 89955 55224 97056 02388 62657 46810 18220 76129 54738 55650 61451 62184 74334 88586 12473 84629 05460 24822 39921 18813 78322 04991 28151 92917 64630 45210 35056 14513 97912 76152 74874 22134 18822 07098 26005 61832 45458 15008 63821 88738 68670 58580 18481 93631 72375 17312 57739 54495 78871 55566 94761 13084 19143 11629 20933 76485 28184 11776 63681 43677 65302 09334 69273 57100 59433 48742 10642 79210 79455 54617 20190 94047 29501 45812 47607 33794 69270 74481 42678 30342 59337 90143 63101 91851 31473 28740 07294 04315 83950 26705 72213 58120 01857 60020 36158 99610 02412 08282 66592 07648 05274 43762 52950 95181 27857 45470 64452 35797 05641 38217 32915 15295 37484 56677 60568 08241 55937 34450 52860 79534 22552 18124 76277 10966 48202 06337 41153 52788 38384 13843 09481 00271 63539 60569 27727 95265 54363 85681 84642 52767 22116 86646 94075 12480 03937 83295 02785 15378 33159 06884 23254

Specs: This table of 1000 random numbers was produced according to the following specifications: Numbers were randomly selected from within the range of 0 to 99999. Duplicate numbers were allowed. This table was generated on 1/26/2022.

Frequently-Asked Questions


Instructions: To find the answer to a frequently-asked question, simply click on the question.

What are random numbers?

Random numbers are sets of digits (i.e., 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) arranged in random order. Because they are randomly ordered, no individual digit can be predicted from knowledge of any other digit or group of digits.

What is a random number generator?

A random number generator is a process that produces random numbers. Any random process (e.g., a flip of a coin or the toss of a die) can be used to generate random numbers. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator uses a statistical algorithm to produce random numbers.

What is a random number table?

A random number table is a listing of random numbers. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator produces a listing of random numbers, based on the following User specifications:

  • The quantity of random numbers desired.
  • The maximum and minimum values of random numbers in the list.
  • Whether or not duplicate random numbers are permitted.

How "random" is Stat Trek's Random Number Generator?

Although no computer algorithm can produce numbers that are truly random, Stat Trek's Random Number Generator produces numbers that are nearly random. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator can be used for most statistical applications (like randomly assigning subjects to treatments in a statistical experiment). However, it should not be used to generate numbers for cryptography.

What are the minimum and maximum values in the Random Number Generator?

The minimum and maximum values set limits on the range of values that might appear in a random number table. The minimum value identifies the smallest number in the range; and the maximum value identifies the largest number. For example, if we set the minimum value equal to 12 and the maximum value equal to 30, the Random Number Generator will produce a table consisting of random arrangements of numbers in the range of 12 to 30.

What does it mean to allow duplicate entries in a random number table?

Stat Trek's Random Number Generator allows Users to permit or prevent the same number from appearing more than once in the random number table. To permit duplicate entries, set the drop-down box labeled "Allow duplicate entries" equal to True. To prevent duplicate entries, change the setting to False.

Essentially, allowing duplicate entries amounts to sampling with replacement; preventing duplicate entries amounts to sampling without replacement.

What is a seed?

The seed is a number that controls whether the Random Number Generator produces a new set of random numbers or repeats a particular sequence of random numbers. If the text box labeled "Seed" is blank, the Random Number Generator will produce a different set of random numbers each time a random number table is created. On the other hand, if a number is entered in the "Seed" text box, the Random Number Generator will produce a set of random numbers based on the value of the Seed. Each time a random number table is created, the Random Number Generator will produce the same set of random numbers, until the Seed value is changed.

Note: The ability of the seed to repeat a random sequence of numbers assumes that other User specifications (i.e., quantity of random numbers, minimum value, maximum value, whether duplicate values are permitted) are constant across replications. The use of a seed is illustrated in Sample Problem 1.

Warning: The seed capability is provided for Users as a short-term convenience. However, it is not a long-term solution. From time to time, Stat Trek may change the underlying random number algorithm to more closely approximate true randomization. A newer algorithm will not reproduce random numbers generated by an older algorithm, even with the same seed. Therefore, the safest way to "save" a random number table is to print it out. The algorithm was last changed on 3/1/2018.

Sample Problems


  1. A university is testing the effectiveness of two different medications. They have 10 volunteers. To conduct the study, researchers randomly assign a number from 1 to 2 to each volunteer. Volunteers who are assigned number 1 get Treatment 1 and volunteers who are assigned number 2 get Treatment 2. To implement this strategy, they input the following settings in the Random Number Generator:

    • They want to assign a number randomly to each of 10 volunteers, so they need 10 entries in the random number table. Therefore, the researchers enter 10 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Since each volunteer will receive one of two treatments, they set the minimum value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 2.
    • Since some volunteers will receive the same treatment, the researchers allow duplicate random numbers in the random number table. Therefore, they set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
    • And finally, they set the Seed value equal to 1. (The number 1 is not special. They could have used any positive integer.)

    Then, they hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a Random Number Table consisting of 10 entries, where each entry is the number 1 or 2. The researchers assign the treatment indicated by the first entry to volunteer number 1, the treatment indicated by the second entry to volunteer number 2, and so on.

    Using this strategy, what treatment did the first volunteer receive? What treatment did the tenth volunteer receive?

    Solution:

    This problem can be solved by recreating the exact Random Number Table used by the researchers. By inputting all of the same entries (especially the same Seed value) that were used originally, we can recreate the Random Number Table used by the researchers. Therefore, we do the following:

    • Enter 10 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Set the minimum value equal to 1 and the maximum value equal to 2.
    • Set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
    • Set the Seed value equal to 1.

    Then, we hit the Calculate button. This produces the Random Number Table shown below.

    10 Random Numbers
    2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1

    From the table, we can see that the first entry is "2". Therefore, the first volunteer received Treatment 2. And the second entry is "2". Hence, the second volunteer also received Treatment 2. And so on. The tenth volunteer received the tenth number in the list, which is "1". So the tenth volunteer received Treatment 1.
  1. We would like to survey 500 families from a population of 20,000 families. Each family has been assigned a unique number from 1 to 20,000. How can we randomly select 500 families for the survey?

    Solution:

    We input the following settings in the Random Number Generator:

    • We want to select 500 families. Therefore, we enter 500 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Since each family has been assigned a number from 1 to 20,000, we set the minimum value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 20,000.
    • Since we only want to survey each family once, we don't want duplicate random numbers in our random number table. Therefore, we set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "False".

    Then, we hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a Random Number Table consisting of 500 unique random numbers between 1 and 20,000. We will survey the families represented by these numbers - a sample of 500 families randomly selected from the population of 20,000 families.