Statistics Dictionary

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Residual

In regression analysis, the difference between the observed value of the dependent variable (y) and the predicted value (ŷ) is called the residual (e). Each data point has one residual.

Residual = Observed value - Predicted value
e = y - ŷ

Both the sum and the mean of the residuals are equal to zero. That is, Σ e = 0 and e = 0.

See also:   AP Statistics Tutorial: Residuals, Outliers, and Influential Points