Random Number Generator

Use the Random Number Generator to create a list of random numbers, based on your specifications. The numbers you generate appear in the Random Number Table.

For help in using the Random Number Generator, read the Frequently-Asked Questions or review the Sample Problems.

  • Enter a value in each of the first three text boxes.
  • Indicate whether duplicate entries are allowed in the table.
  • Click the Calculate button to create a table of random numbers.

Note: The seed value is optional. Leave it blank to generate a new set of numbers. Use it to repeat a previously-generated set of numbers.

How many random numbers?
Minimum value
Maximum value
Allow duplicate entries
Seed (optional)

Random Number Table



1000 Random Numbers
33884 62486 45620 83150 28512 62318 19976 63525 02062 22650 21035 39180 63597 97541 42871 59145 72279 90757 30436 19814 45180 32332 49874 54005 90094 80135 83833 45024 63350 46428 51777 65730 52624 49429 55298 42592 84755 89877 48431 44759 58552 52593 32965 98115 02610 33041 78755 24346 58122 88894 69033 05001 86690 16593 70725 70555 03140 52912 29760 14470 33332 01520 91383 32261 96975 84541 45469 85555 15437 19121 96833 91156 44559 18985 60545 35103 32468 21006 82241 11740 02387 36762 83435 87771 60450 29101 31834 91328 28514 13702 36649 26030 01972 85640 68905 10048 32561 70947 06759 40164 36182 03174 05806 80838 25708 24953 94399 78267 68796 14563 93954 99450 70700 37487 64268 96249 82087 22981 73827 94450 31843 65629 95124 07830 84893 51914 24967 77214 25007 11772 29791 34543 62616 95162 15976 91931 67623 73621 25153 55733 27218 66835 54520 65604 28686 94194 02156 58560 67224 51358 37329 58046 78751 11820 95812 87993 97722 53466 00193 11885 39939 10141 05192 96817 10363 48209 67966 02561 35930 68115 43431 95626 23360 30948 04564 88324 41970 10007 87726 02829 31487 67357 62965 60240 34863 55397 29337 94646 56084 43421 35210 92186 42981 69179 23586 55112 95049 15441 02403 90851 96254 11558 39858 26071 72847 60027 84710 45737 76176 88051 11600 57181 90502 24103 91360 79158 65805 99488 86323 55914 75602 74905 70642 96242 99758 92011 75598 37552 32298 49983 59912 34928 14219 07077 05060 75192 91303 07197 35584 15967 96931 31452 64406 49741 59892 74721 63138 92925 37200 47216 57396 99920 71903 01042 47114 02178 75896 81762 51853 72263 37736 04959 81116 12916 55451 57796 29661 71115 94354 25582 97810 77140 69858 43334 36767 08634 55283 72336 18925 79665 14674 01707 33182 54791 60611 74957 05251 88119 37019 41557 42976 87369 26987 33494 06642 02940 85574 66840 04286 41965 97625 68308 12014 07380 60583 26822 19309 61985 92300 70074 99346 17504 63853 66085 04304 48651 57351 49776 85678 32189 48753 74521 39593 10996 15677 88715 77114 83125 70214 37334 19561 15866 16741 88501 18821 84812 34731 85043 02656 37919 86569 21058 45025 84567 50360 43477 61388 09625 77748 78623 29020 12515 76721 83778 32328 71269 19430 23744 33158 31596 74995 72403 66111 20945 67326 39284 58854 87562 57927 21119 77435 64561 53713 78414 96589 58978 39822 37005 95059 65839 37428 14623 75902 07220 86551 72455 11806 96312 53871 91709 15397 26478 65544 75173 34560 85325 65006 73782 72741 93755 95796 38177 34268 70036 09358 95268 94661 18863 97863 49797 95942 45417 52015 10902 66949 94431 43865 43676 68652 14250 34626 45733 64458 45897 07483 48768 15533 37131 25406 45122 01105 81514 13962 39342 63783 82469 69129 24743 79867 42346 90108 84976 54662 76484 37134 20584 42786 52271 14290 00565 93491 53209 77320 38941 20966 67977 66440 96313 99656 04490 64151 06427 84571 28966 78051 27737 56603 29985 48651 19966 92832 07553 82182 45668 61843 87165 08410 96794 44038 58866 63450 46249 76948 41313 97577 24459 25544 70842 08038 20933 77553 15525 96865 10824 63766 14235 53689 06490 03354 40709 63549 34061 74181 92609 39710 34998 08112 05586 81468 92657 11331 92341 56971 83851 09649 06688 11022 55412 18819 32619 97902 25754 39849 98362 39174 11436 79312 15447 06499 78724 94660 42766 29449 20153 64538 75639 28317 56091 84092 59871 71934 61299 85288 30821 60477 16498 82217 77459 33281 84924 41415 31432 01658 13899 77170 81126 06703 61389 71836 10726 02107 47564 21148 64281 61974 31367 04529 34767 13629 12071 80410 78145 95432 55844 06535 52430 39593 47313 85279 81750 79979 66121 33958 45407 84931 88495 80140 91942 15076 13807 81963 78198 06138 16135 73440 33380 76750 20828 34779 48118 61269 06064 87689 88533 67587 29418 15698 35295 59944 79422 09459 47686 66740 52127 37072 52667 13345 52666 39385 58934 79919 21817 50317 95987 84216 87564 42164 78186 89402 41661 95913 93818 36863 41194 96556 19161 04025 35145 53400 57539 87156 15950 45383 03393 09189 96068 91382 31338 52526 09537 45529 10228 16857 38542 17524 42218 01968 64973 17943 26825 15555 46991 28556 49992 06037 20587 97634 98153 20369 26150 60267 97289 86854 60022 83674 76996 22952 51069 37513 59546 68099 62234 89198 73949 41515 17108 24208 95017 25017 51489 91403 07422 70834 89943 73332 94765 34415 47368 81549 53634 32246 55558 76925 32668 24661 14764 14958 96619 23653 70254 16091 15415 25688 13880 61016 78222 69517 10640 10995 32508 18989 50237 53168 48102 70864 23642 70867 06261 87622 24662 38926 13729 55280 76495 43997 41802 66204 83299 29861 90387 26918 06748 67739 77070 90919 67602 51608 51171 16489 72263 18509 32816 49509 64340 93865 76990 31269 01213 61786 62606 31283 55593 60390 06564 05097 42085 02110 02816 77108 68753 19007 86426 48371 13678 33085 22636 29416 26524 51600 20923 98056 55102 87376 74067 82202 96926 04116 22211 67676 75782 86714 41924 31023 43287 36566 60263 97320 05454 91887 93835 22996 74251 73021 12861 03638 44166 52751 30238 06805 93772 51616 15601 29843 12281 58221 34385 82693 51118 74549 11890 95709 00472 86275 22341 52467 90869 58079 02951 47576 19725 53955 92983 69495 02917 82528 97816 08343 51340 67364 78001 88711 72469 42282 63330 27474 96926 71668 91896 16607 30041 95787 74153 30993 28410 01095 81982 61240 01463 15553 62754 71489 38025 28938 78387 82230 57878 38153 69416 78112 88323 17548 44050 40758 65741 14222 92237 06575 62163 68342 24724 49568 36820 58456 37123 89153 12719 71800 98971 22967 78195 99615 67795 84684 13479 57460 28171 26825 42258 30522 55787 28569 08240 43928 06511 28572 76714 58061 30445 82771 61114 88869 10994 47202 74582 53180 28926 85814 06526 39012 51434 03274 24190 00889 46201 02787 99210 80148 20459 68905 59182 50259 85054 75340 64217 87130 43507 17777 08512 64425 06080 71686 46907 73874 28832 75135 46449 70585 77687 36601 62955 43359 17496 67784 42572 09999 26096 41421 48345 37626 33377 74095 11774 87988 85341 34049 09379 87778 33165 73999 64260 23938 47266 88946 72666 63981 56362 98990 55548 01296 11531 57138 35130 25464 75281 82124 36467 17571 35606 16213 14009 70519 45050 08021 03161 34336 84774 20322 96850 86497 53609

Specs: This table of 1000 random numbers was produced according to the following specifications: Numbers were randomly selected from within the range of 0 to 99999. Duplicate numbers were allowed. This table was generated on 10/28/2021.

Frequently-Asked Questions


Instructions: To find the answer to a frequently-asked question, simply click on the question.

What are random numbers?

Random numbers are sets of digits (i.e., 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) arranged in random order. Because they are randomly ordered, no individual digit can be predicted from knowledge of any other digit or group of digits.

What is a random number generator?

A random number generator is a process that produces random numbers. Any random process (e.g., a flip of a coin or the toss of a die) can be used to generate random numbers. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator uses a statistical algorithm to produce random numbers.

What is a random number table?

A random number table is a listing of random numbers. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator produces a listing of random numbers, based on the following User specifications:

  • The quantity of random numbers desired.
  • The maximum and minimum values of random numbers in the list.
  • Whether or not duplicate random numbers are permitted.

How "random" is Stat Trek's Random Number Generator?

Although no computer algorithm can produce numbers that are truly random, Stat Trek's Random Number Generator produces numbers that are nearly random. Stat Trek's Random Number Generator can be used for most statistical applications (like randomly assigning subjects to treatments in a statistical experiment). However, it should not be used to generate numbers for cryptography.

What are the minimum and maximum values in the Random Number Generator?

The minimum and maximum values set limits on the range of values that might appear in a random number table. The minimum value identifies the smallest number in the range; and the maximum value identifies the largest number. For example, if we set the minimum value equal to 12 and the maximum value equal to 30, the Random Number Generator will produce a table consisting of random arrangements of numbers in the range of 12 to 30.

What does it mean to allow duplicate entries in a random number table?

Stat Trek's Random Number Generator allows Users to permit or prevent the same number from appearing more than once in the random number table. To permit duplicate entries, set the drop-down box labeled "Allow duplicate entries" equal to True. To prevent duplicate entries, change the setting to False.

Essentially, allowing duplicate entries amounts to sampling with replacement; preventing duplicate entries amounts to sampling without replacement.

What is a seed?

The seed is a number that controls whether the Random Number Generator produces a new set of random numbers or repeats a particular sequence of random numbers. If the text box labeled "Seed" is blank, the Random Number Generator will produce a different set of random numbers each time a random number table is created. On the other hand, if a number is entered in the "Seed" text box, the Random Number Generator will produce a set of random numbers based on the value of the Seed. Each time a random number table is created, the Random Number Generator will produce the same set of random numbers, until the Seed value is changed.

Note: The ability of the seed to repeat a random sequence of numbers assumes that other User specifications (i.e., quantity of random numbers, minimum value, maximum value, whether duplicate values are permitted) are constant across replications. The use of a seed is illustrated in Sample Problem 1.

Warning: The seed capability is provided for Users as a short-term convenience. However, it is not a long-term solution. From time to time, Stat Trek may change the underlying random number algorithm to more closely approximate true randomization. A newer algorithm will not reproduce random numbers generated by an older algorithm, even with the same seed. Therefore, the safest way to "save" a random number table is to print it out. The algorithm was last changed on 3/1/2018.

Sample Problems


  1. A university is testing the effectiveness of two different medications. They have 10 volunteers. To conduct the study, researchers randomly assign a number from 1 to 2 to each volunteer. Volunteers who are assigned number 1 get Treatment 1 and volunteers who are assigned number 2 get Treatment 2. To implement this strategy, they input the following settings in the Random Number Generator:

    • They want to assign a number randomly to each of 10 volunteers, so they need 10 entries in the random number table. Therefore, the researchers enter 10 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Since each volunteer will receive one of two treatments, they set the minimum value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 2.
    • Since some volunteers will receive the same treatment, the researchers allow duplicate random numbers in the random number table. Therefore, they set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
    • And finally, they set the Seed value equal to 1. (The number 1 is not special. They could have used any positive integer.)

    Then, they hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a Random Number Table consisting of 10 entries, where each entry is the number 1 or 2. The researchers assign the treatment indicated by the first entry to volunteer number 1, the treatment indicated by the second entry to volunteer number 2, and so on.

    Using this strategy, what treatment did the first volunteer receive? What treatment did the tenth volunteer receive?

    Solution:

    This problem can be solved by recreating the exact Random Number Table used by the researchers. By inputting all of the same entries (especially the same Seed value) that were used originally, we can recreate the Random Number Table used by the researchers. Therefore, we do the following:

    • Enter 10 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Set the minimum value equal to 1 and the maximum value equal to 2.
    • Set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "True".
    • Set the Seed value equal to 1.

    Then, we hit the Calculate button. This produces the Random Number Table shown below.

    10 Random Numbers
    2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1

    From the table, we can see that the first entry is "2". Therefore, the first volunteer received Treatment 2. And the second entry is "2". Hence, the second volunteer also received Treatment 2. And so on. The tenth volunteer received the tenth number in the list, which is "1". So the tenth volunteer received Treatment 1.
  1. We would like to survey 500 families from a population of 20,000 families. Each family has been assigned a unique number from 1 to 20,000. How can we randomly select 500 families for the survey?

    Solution:

    We input the following settings in the Random Number Generator:

    • We want to select 500 families. Therefore, we enter 500 in the text box labeled "How many random numbers?".
    • Since each family has been assigned a number from 1 to 20,000, we set the minimum value equal to 1; and the maximum value equal to 20,000.
    • Since we only want to survey each family once, we don't want duplicate random numbers in our random number table. Therefore, we set the "Allow duplicate entries" dropdown box equal to "False".

    Then, we hit the Calculate button. The Random Number Generator produces a Random Number Table consisting of 500 unique random numbers between 1 and 20,000. We will survey the families represented by these numbers - a sample of 500 families randomly selected from the population of 20,000 families.